Speed up your Internet speed


Problem with your speed connection?

Complete the most accurate test by clicking on “Begin Test.” Speedtest. will automatically select the server with the lowest ping time. This means you will be connected to the closest server from a computer networking perspective. provides hundreds of different servers located around the globe, thereby eliminating internet congestion that negatively impacts your speed test.

The “Begin Test” method is the most reliable, but feel free to experiment with manually choosing a server by selecting the white locator dots on the “Begin Test” map. You may also select a “Preferred Server” in your Settings to permanently give a selected server priority in any future tests. Due to Internet congestion and unpredictable ping times, you are usually better off letting Speedtest. select the best server for each test.

Test often and at different times of the day to ensure that your connection is up to speed! Utilize the My Results page to compare your Internet connection with others, and remember to use your test results when searching for solutions or settling disputes with your Internet service provider.



speedtest at&t

How it works

Start the speed test by clicking on the big button in the center of the page. The check will start by downloading a file and will measure your download speed. Once the download has finished, the broadband speed test will try to upload a file and will measure your upload speed

 If you want to get accurate results then you should not use your internet connection for any other applications once the speed checker is running.Speed test is performed against the nearest of these servers – Ashburn (VA), Dallas/Fort Worth (TX), Los Angeles (CA), Miami (FL), Newark (NJ), Palo Alto (CA), Seattle (WA), St. Louis (MO)


What must be installed to use Broadband speed checker?

Speed checker should work in any web browser that supports Flash of version 8 and javascript.

Why the download or upload test does not work?

If you have a firewall or antivirus software installed that is not configured properly, then speed checker may not work correctly. Try to disable the firewall / antivirus when you are running the speed checker. After the test has been completed do not forget to turn it back on so you stay protected.

What does kbps mean?

It means kilobits per second. Usually, when you purchase a broadband then ISP explains speed in Mb. 1 Mb has 1024 kilobits.


What might affect my speed test?

Any applications running on your PC can affect the speed, so you should disable temporarily :

  • email checking software
  • instant messenger or other chat software
  • internet radio
  • windows updates
  • any other downloading

How does the speed checker work?

Our speed checker downloads a file from the server and measures how long your connection takes to download it. The size of the file will be different according to your line speed.

How accurate is the speed checker?

We have tried to build the speed checker as accurate as possible but there are several factors that can affect the test. The speed checker measures the speed at the time of the test so if your network is running slow at that time then speed checker will report a slow speed. This does not necessarily mean that your internet connection is slow at the other times.

How long it takes the speed checker to complete?

About 20 seconds.

Make your speedtest now

Bandwidth Calculator

How long does it take to download a file at different connection speeds?

Instructions: Our calculator measures the estimated time needed to download a file at different connection speeds. Simply type in the file size in the field below and choose a measurement unit. The fields below will automatically populate with estimated download times *based on connection speed.
 MB (Megabytes)
 GB (Gigabytes)
 TB (Terabytes)
Connection Capacity Time
33.6 K (Modem) 33,600 bps 41 mins, 36 secs
56 K (Modem) 56,000 bps 24 mins, 57 secs
64 K (DS-0) 64,000 bps 21 mins, 50 secs
128 K (ISDN) 128,000 bps 10 mins, 55 secs
256 K (DSL) 256,000 bps 5 mins, 27 secs
640 K (DSL/Cable) 640,000 bps 2 mins, 11 secs
768 K (DSL/Cable) 768,000 bps 1 min, 49 secs
T1, DS-1 1.544 Mbps 54 secs
T3, DS-3 44.736 Mbps 1 sec
OC-1 51.840 Mbps 1 sec
OC-3 155.520 Mbps Less than a second.
OC-12 622.520 Mbps Less than a second.
OC-48 2.488 Gbps Less than a second.
OC-192 10Gbps Less than a second.
*Note: these calculations assume a “perfect” connection at the stated speed. Actual performance will vary due to retries, latency, transmission protocol requirements, and other concurrent traffic.

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Includes award-winning protection against online identity theft, viruses, spyware, and hackers. Key technology highlights:

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August 11th, 2010

Upload vs. Download

posted by Hanna

Upload vs. Download, what’s the difference?

For the average user, download throughput is the primary metric used when considering the speed of your broadband package to measure the quality of your online experience. Download throughput represents how quickly you can receive information, such as reading email, browsing web pages, downloading content such as music, photos or applications as well as the quality and buffer rate when streaming video.

Because download is more meaningful for popular activities, residential Internet packages are typically asynchronous, and normally download is much faster than upload. An example: 5.0Mbps/1.5Mbps package means 5 megabits of downstream per second, while only a fraction of the upstream at 1.5 megabits per second. Packages vary widely with some having upload as low as 128Kbp/s or just about twice as fast as a dial-up connection. In a future post we will provide suggested download and upload speeds for a variety of online activities.

Naturally, upload speeds are very important if you are hosting information via a web or email server. This is because the upload throughput will determine how quickly other users can access information from your network. Your upload is another person’s download and vice versa. Most residential users aren’t hosting servers, so in that respect upload is typically not a big issue.

However, where upload throughput really matters is when you want to quickly share outbound content from your connection. Examples of these activities include sending an email and uploading photos or video to a website like Facebook, Flickr or YouTube. As more users have a higher need to send large emails and post higher resolution photos and videos to websites, upload is telling a larger part of the whole story. Another increasingly popular use of upload is peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing programs, such as BitTorrent, where upload is required to continually send content in order to have the privilege of downloading. VoIP, Video Conferencing and Online Gaming also require upload throughput for the bi-directional interactions.

So, depending on what you are looking to do with your broadband connection, be sure to consider upload speed carefully. Remember that although neither are particularly fast, even 256Kbp/s will allow you to upload twice as fast as 128Kbp/s and you’ll appreciate that the next time you upload pictures or send that big email attachment to a friend.


October 27th, 2010

Improve your Internet speed

posted by Hanna

We believe that everyone should have free access to tools and information that help them get the best possible value from their Internet service. Our company has been working to ensure that the public gets faster, more high-quality Internet for years, and the goal of this post is to share that expertise with you. The power to optimize one’s Internet performance and increase overall satisfaction could be just a few simple steps away.

Remember: the overall quality and speed of an Internet connection is largely determined by the capabilities of your Internet Service Provider (ISP). However, there are questions you can ask – and answer! – to help ensure that you’re getting the most value from your connection.

To learn more about this topic, please read our full article “Improve your Internet speeds” in our Wiki.


What is

Use to determine the quality of your broadband Internet connection. Streaming media, voice, video communications, and online gaming require more than just raw speed. Test your connection now to get your rating and share the result

About the Line Quality Components:

Packet Loss

Much as it sounds, if you have anything less than complete success in transmitting and receiving “packets” of data then you are experiencing this problem with your Internet connection. It can mean much slower download and upload speeds, poor quality VoIP audio, pauses with streaming media and what seems like time warping in games — your connection may even come to a total standstill! Packet loss is a metric where anything greater than 0% should cause concern.


This measurement tells how long it takes a “packet” of data to travel from your computer to a server on the Internet and back. Whenever you experience delayed responses in Internet applications – this would be due to a higher than desired ping. Similar to packet loss, lower is better when it comes to ping. A result below 100 ms should be expected from any decent broadband connection.


Once you understand ping, jitter should also make sense. Jitter is merely the variance in measuring successive ping tests. Zero jitter means the results were exactly the same every time, and anything above zero is the amount by which they varied. Like the other quality measurements, a lower jitter value is better. And while some jitter should be expected over the Internet, having it be a small fraction of the ping result is ideal.


Instantly boost your Broadband speed by around 5 X with one easy click.

YouTube Video

You don’t have to spend more money upgrading your high speed Internet Broadband service to get faster Internet speed.
We looked in to other options and found out and proved that anyone can get about 5 X faster Internet speed from their existing Broadband connection with one simple step.
We did real life tests to see if it was possible and would actually work and we found that it can be done very easily.
This video shows a quick summary of our tests and the solution.
See more details on

Web Speed Test Page –

Another online third pary broadband speed tester:

How to use MSCONFIG in Windows XP and Vista

If you have ever had a tech support call regarding what programs start, when you boot up Windows XP, you may have heard the term MSCONFIG.  Perhaps you were instructed by a technician where to go and what to do with this tool.  Granted, this is not necessarily something that one would use on a daily basis.  However, there are occasions when MSCONFIG is quite useful, providing there is practical information on how to utilize it.

Before we get into what MSCONFIG is used for, we need to know how to access it.  This is accomplished by left-click on Start, then Run.  While in the Run dialog box, type in MSCONFIG (it is not case-sensitive) in white space, then left-click on Ok.  It is important to note, before proceeding, that any changes made in MSCONFIG require a reboot before they are permanent.





A medium-sized window will pop-up on your screen, with a selection of six tabs.  The first tab, which is selected by default, is the General tab.  Is this view, you will see three selectable radio buttons under the Startup Selection heading.  Normal Startup will be selected if you have never used MSCONFIG.  Diagnostic Startup will start Windows XP up in a “stripped down” functionality mode, akin to a Safe Mode startup.  If you choose this option, remember to change it back when you are done troubleshooting, or Windows will keep starting up in this manner.



If one does not encounter the Normal Startup being selected in MSCONFIG, they will see the Selective Startup having the dot next to it.  This means that something has been altered with Windows, and only the active items will start.  Not to panic though, it may have been as simple as a startup item being removed from its list.  Maybe the BOOT.INI file was modified to allow different boot option with Windows.

While I do not intend to get too deep into the nuts and bolts of the SYSTEM.INI, WIN.INI, and BOOT.INI tabs, I do want to show an example of what a typical BOOT.INI screen looks like.  In this screen shot, we see some standard boot commands with a Windows XP Professional setup on a single hard drive.



One of the reasons is that I would not want a computer user to venture boldly into the WIN and SYSTEM settings, is that any small change may cause Windows to break and sink faster than the Titanic.  I do not believe there is enough room in this post for all the documentation.  I recommend consulting your local computertechnician or the Microsoft Knowledgebase.

Oddly enough, the next tab over, Services, has a feature that I personally believe should be available in the other dangerous areas.  In the Services tab, you see all of your computer’s services relating to Windows, and any other program on your machine that is installed as a service.  The nice item in this screen is the Essential column heading (screen shot annotation #1).  This annotates that a listed service is necessary to run Windows.  Should you deselect it, well, it goes without saying that things, not necessarily good ones, will happen.



While in the Services tab, you can look at any non-Windows service by left-clicking on the Hide All Microsoft Services checkbox (screen shot annotation #2).  Doing this is not damaging to Windows, it is simply a toggle switch.  You can also Disable All (screen shot annotation #3) services if you want to, enough said.

The last tab in MSCONFIG is one of the more frequently visited areas.  The Startup tab controls what programs start with Windows.  If you want a program to not start alongside Windows, simply uncheck the box on the left-hand side of the window, under Startup Items, and it will not start with Windows.  Following the columns to the right, you will notice the program or command that runs with the start item, as well as the actual location in the Windows Registry where a reference is for that item.


There are exceptions to the MSCONFIG rule of stopping startup programs.  Various computer viruses, Trojans, and Spyware programs insert themselves into the Startup list, and are capable of self-repair.  If you uncheck a suspicious program from the Startup list, only to look at MSCONFIG after a reboot, and it is still checked, there is a possibility that you have a malicious program on your computer.

It is also possible that if you update certain programs, like Adobe Acrobat Reader, it will reinsert items into the startup list after updates are run.  However, as shown in the screen shot above, programs like Adobe are easy to spot on the Startup list.

This is a guest post by Charles Brader, a tech enthusiast and blogger. 

Technorati Tags: Msconfig,Windows Startup,Startup,Boot.ini file,Win.ini file,System.ini file,Boot Options




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2012 Internet Browser Software Product Comparisons

2012 Internet Browser Software Product Comparisons

Rank #1 #2 #3 #4 #5 #6 #7 #8 #9 #10

Excellent 5/5star

Very Good



Poor 0/5

Google Chrome Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Maxthon RockMelt SeaMonkey Deepnet Explorer Avant Browser
Google Chrome Firefox Internet Explorer Opera Safari Maxthon RockMelt SeaMonkey Deepnet Explorer Avant Browser
Reviewer Comments Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review  Read Review 
Lowest Price Visit Google Chrome 16  Visit Firefox 9  Visit Internet Explorer 9  Visit Opera 11.6  Visit Safari 5.1.2  Visit Maxthon 3  Visit RockMelt  Visit SeaMonkey 2.6.1  Visit Deepnet Explorer 1.5  Visit Avant Browser 3.61

Internet Browser Software Review

Why Internet Browsers?

An internet browser is a software application that enables you to browse the world wide web, locating and accessing webpages. Browsers translate HTML code, allowing you to read text, view images, play videos and listen to audio clips on websites. They also interpret hyperlinks that allow you to travel to different webpages when clicked on. While internet browsers are primarily intended to access the internet, they can also be used to access private information on web servers or through file systems.

Get online faster with a Chromebook. Buy now.

Internet Browsers: What to Look For

Heavy web users need an internet browser that is both fast and secure, and though all browsers enable internet access, not all are created equal. Different browsers can render webpages differently, and there can be a large disparity in performance between the top competitors. The three main things to consider when choosing an internet browser are simplicity, speed and security. Excelling in each of these areas, Google ChromeFirefox and Internet Explorer are among the current best internet browsers. To learn more, check out our side-by-side comparisons andarticles on internet browsers. The following is the in-depth criteria we used to evaluate the best internet browsers on the market.

Feature Set – A web browser should provide practical, convenient features that make surfing the web easy and fast. For instance, a browser should offer tabbed browsing, a customizable toolbar and an integrated search engine. For a more personalized web experience, the browser should also provide the ability to save bookmarks, set parental controls and create RSS feeds. Generally speaking, the more features an internet browser provides, the better.

Security – While online security measures have come a long way since the inception of the internet, the web is still rife with security risks, namely small-scale attacks to hack electronic data. Security features such as privacy settings, a pop-up blocker and antispyware enable safe internet surfing and help keep personal information such as passwords secure.

Speed & Compatibility – Web browsers should load quickly and be compatible with all major operating systems. We tested the speed of each browser in our lineup using the same Windows 7 system and a stopwatch, timing how quickly each one initially started up and was able to navigate between websites. A top internet browser will load and navigate between pages within just a few seconds.

Ease of Use – The best internet browsers are those that strike a seamless balance between features and ease of use. While features on a web browser are important, they become worthless if a browser’s interface hinders your ability to utilize them. Web browsers should boast an intuitive layout that fosters easy and convenient navigation.

Help & Support – Although some internet browsers are open source and therefore not supplemented with dedicated technical support, we still considered the quality of support options available. When it comes to internet browsers, available support can come in many forms, ranging from FAQs to tutorials, email support to a product manual.

While all internet browsers will provide access to the internet, selecting a fast and secure one will ensure safe and enjoyable online browsing. At TopTenREVIEWS We Do the Research So You Don’t Have To.™


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How do I locate my bank routing number and checking account number?

Q.  How do I locate my bank routing number and checking account number?

A.  You can find the Bank Routing Number and your Checking Account Number within the string of numbers located at the bottom of one of your checks. Make sure you are using a check and NOT a deposit slip, since the numbers may not be the same. If your Account Number is not clearly recognizable, you can identify it by following the steps below.
The numbers at the bottom of your check include a 9-digit Bank Routing Number, your Account Number and the Check Number. You can find your Account Number through the process of elimination. It may be helpful to write the string of numbers down on a piece of paper first. When writing out your bank numbers, ignore any special characters that may look like this:

Step 1: Find your Bank Routing Number
The first 9 numbers from the left at the bottom of your check are your Bank Routing Number. This number is always 9 digits. Circle these 9 digits.

TIP: Find the special characters shown at right. The Bank Routing Number is between these characters

Step 2: Find the Check Number

Locate the string of numbers at the bottom of your check that matches the Check Number in the upper right-hand corner. This number is usually 4 digits, and may include a zero as the first digit. Draw a line through these digits.

Step 3: Identify the remaining numbers

The numbers that are left – those that are neither the Bank Routing Number nor the Check Number – are your Account Number.

NOTE: If you notice extra zeroes before or after your account number, please include them as part of your account number.

TIP: Find the special character shown at right. Your Account Number is directly to the left of this character.


¿Cómo puedo encontrar mi número de ruta bancaria y número de cuenta corriente?
P. ¿Cómo puedo encontrar mi número de ruta bancaria y número de cuenta corriente?
R. Puede encontrar el número de ruta bancaria y su número de cuenta corriente dentro de la cadena de números situados en la parte inferior de uno de sus cheques. Asegúrese de que está usando un cheque y no una boleta de depósito, ya que los números no pueden ser los mismos. Si su número de cuenta no es claramente reconocible, puede identificar siguiendo los pasos a continuación.
Los números en la parte inferior de su cheque incluyen un banco de 9 dígitos de número de ruta, su número de cuenta y el número de cheque. Puede encontrar su número de cuenta en el proceso de eliminación. Puede ser útil para escribir la cadena de números en una hoja de papel primero. Al escribir sus números de banco, hacer caso omiso de los caracteres especiales que puede tener este aspecto:
Paso 1: Encuentre su número de ruta bancaria
Los primeros 9 números de la izquierda en la parte inferior de su cheque es su número de ruta bancaria. Este número es siempre 9 dígitos. Encierra en un círculo los 9 dígitos.
TIP: descubra los caracteres especiales que se muestran a la derecha. El número de ruta del banco se encuentra entre estos personajes
Paso 2: Busque el número de cheque
Busque la cadena de números en la parte inferior de su cheque que coincida con el número de cheque en la parte superior derecha de la esquina. Este número suele ser de 4 dígitos y puede incluir un cero como primer dígito. Dibuja una línea a través de estas cifras.
Paso 3: Identificar los números restantes
Los números que quedan – aquellos que no son ni el número de ruta bancaria ni el número de cheque – son su número de cuenta.
NOTA: Si observa ceros adicionales antes o después de su número de cuenta, por favor incluya como parte de su número de cuenta.
TIP: Busque el carácter especial de la derecha. Su número de cuenta es justo a la izquierda de este personaje.


 Here You will understand how people cheat at Yahoo Chess site, How They made it, How to avoid them, or just simple : How to cheat at Yahoo as well.
Cheating at chess apparently has a long and proud history.  Wood cites Ruy Lopez’s 16th century advice to “arrange the board so that it reflects the light into your opponent’s eyes.”  He also passes along the historical suspicion that Napoleon would make illegal moves whenever he felt he was losing his chess game.  I suppose his opponents would overlook such gentle indiscretions, given the alternatives available for Bonaparte to assuage his wounded pride.
cheating at yahoo chess

One of the first thing that we should analize is the promise of all cheat program to make a dream come true; I have a perfect example here

(*********)  does more than play Yahoo chess…this chess auto puts you in league with the pros! If you’re one of the many chess players who is intimidated by chess, has a low rating, or just wants to learn how to play, then there is a perfect chess bot for you — (*******) Created specifically with you in mind, this chess cheat completes any job; need a Yahoo chess ratings boost, . Whether you want to use the advanced chess strategy to earn a 2100+ rating in the span of a day, or want something to offer you hints when you need them, this is the chess auto for you. (*******)is a chess cheat no Yahoo chess player should be without.
Honesty I will get it if I feel I need to satisfy my personal need. Besides who don’t want to kick ass in the chess room or a chess tournament.

How To Cheat Online Yahoo Chess

Cheating and winning games is a fun way of doing isn’t?. Beating world wide opponents needs a real class and brain, yeah!! I am talking about online yahoo chess. There are many tools available on web to cheat Y! chess and outsmart your partners but I am sure they aren’t for FREE!. Here’s a free and clean way of winning and keeping your rating high!
  1. First download a chess game for your O.S. or get it from here (700 KB).
  2. Open the Game (as shown), now if you are selecting white in yahoo online chess then you should select “computer” white in local game.
  3. Logic is quite simple…we will be computer and defeat the human lol.
I used the same technique no only at Yahoo chess server ;But any chess server that I allow You to play with in a range of time that you can feel comfortable.

What is Electronic voice phenomena (EVP)

What is Electronic voice phenomena (EVP)

Electronic voice phenomenon

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Electronic voice phenomena (EVP) are electronically generated noises that resemble speech, but are
 supposedly not the result of intentional voice recordings or renderings. Common sources of EVP include static,

 stray radio transmissions, and background noise. Recordings of EVP are often created from background sound
by increasing the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of the recording equipment.[1]
Interest in EVP surrounds claims that it is of paranormal origin[2], although many occurrences have had natural
explanations including apophenia (finding significance in insignificant phenomena), auditory pareidolia (interpreting random sounds
as voices in one’s own language), equipment artifacts, and hoaxes.
Parapsychologist Konstantin Raudive, who popularized the idea,[3] described EVP as typically brief, usually the
length of a word or short phrase.[4]


As the Spiritualism religious movement became prominent in the 1840s–1920s with a distinguishing belief that the
 spirits of the dead can be contacted by mediums, new technologies of the era including photography were
 employed by spiritualists in an effort to demonstrate contact with aspirit world. So popular were such ideas
 that Thomas Edison was asked in an interview with Scientific American to comment on the possibility of
 using his inventions to communicate with spirits. He replied that if the spirits were only capable of subtle
 influences, a sensitive recording device would provide a better chance of spirit communication than the table
 tipping and ouija boards mediums employed at the time. However, there is no indication that Edison ever
designed or constructed a device for such a purpose.[5] As sound recording became widespread, mediums
explored using this technology to demonstrate communication with the dead as well. Spiritualism declined in
the latter part of the 20th century, but attempts to use portable recording devices and modern digital technologies
to communicate with spirits continued.[6]

[edit]Early interest

American photographer Attila von Szalay was among the first to try recording what he believed to be voices of
the dead as a way to augment his investigations in photographing ghosts. He began his attempts in 1941 using a
78 rpm record, but it wasn’t until 1956, after switching to a reel-to-reel tape recorder, that he believed he was
 successful.[7] Working with Raymond Bayless, von Szalay conducted a number of recording sessions with a
custom-made apparatus, consisting of a microphone in an insulated cabinet connected to an external recording
device and speaker. Szalay reported finding many sounds on the tape that could not be heard on the speaker
 at the time of recording, some of which were recorded when there was no one in the cabinet. He believed these
 sounds to be the voices of discarnate spirits. Among the first recordings believed to be spirit voices were such
messages as “This is G!”, “Hot dog, Art!”, and “Merry Christmas and Happy New Year to you all”.[7] Von Szalay
and Raymond Bayless‘ work was published by the Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research in 1959.[8]
Bayless later went on to co-author the 1979 book, Phone Calls From the Dead.
In 1959, Swedish painter and film producer Friedrich Jürgenson was recording bird songs. Upon playing the tape
later, he heard what he interpreted to be his dead father’s voice and then the spirit of his deceased wife calling his name.[7] He went on to make several
more recordings, including one that he said contained a message from his late mother.[9]

[edit]Raudive voices

Konstantin Raudive, a Latvian psychologist who had taught at the University of Uppsala, Sweden and who had
 worked in conjunction with Jürgenson, made over 100,000 recordings which he described as being
communications with discarnate people. Some of these recordings were conducted in an RF-screened laboratory
and contained words Raudive said were identifiable.[4][6] In an attempt to confirm the content of his collection
 of recordings, Raudive invited listeners to hear and interpret them.[6][7][8][9][10] He believed that the clarity of the
 voices heard in his recordings implied that they could not be readily explained by normal means.[6] Raudive published his first book, Breakthrough: An Amazing Experiment in Electronic 
Communication with the Dead in 1968 and it was translated into English in 1971.[11]

[edit]Spiricom & Frank’s Box

In 1980, William O’Neil constructed an electronic audio device called “The Spiricom.” O’Neil claimed the device
 was built to specifications which he received psychically from George Mueller, a scientist who had died six years
 previously.[2][6] At a Washington, DC press conference on April 6, 1982, O’Neil stated that he was able to hold
two-way conversations with spirits through the Spiricom device, and provided the design specifications to
 researchers for free. However, nobody is known to have replicated the results O’Neil claimed using their own
Spiricom devices.[12][13] O’Neil’s partner, retired industrialist George Meek, attributed O’Neil’s success, and the
inability of others to replicate it, to O’Neil’s mediumistic abilities forming part of the loop that made the system
Another electronic device specifically constructed in an attempt to capture EVP is “Frank’s Box” or the
“Ghost Box”. Created in 2002 by EVP enthusiast Frank Sumption for supposed real-time communication with
the dead, Sumption claims he received his design instructions from the spirit world. The device is described as a
 combination white noise generator and AM radio receiver modified to sweep back and forth through the AM band
selecting split-second snippets of sound. Critics of the device say its effect is subjective and incapable of being
replicated, and since it relies on radio noise, any meaningful response a user gets is purely coincidental, or simply
 the result of pareidolia.[15]

[edit]Modern interest

In 1982, Sarah Estep founded the American Association of Electronic Voice Phenomena (AA-EVP)
in Severna Park, Maryland, a nonprofit organization with the purpose of increasing awareness of EVP,
and of teaching standardized methods for capturing it. Estep began her exploration of EVP in 1976, and
 says she has made hundreds of recordings of messages from deceased friends, relatives, and other individuals,
 including Konstantin Raudive, Beethoven, a lamplighter from 18th century Philadelphia, Pennsylvania,
and extraterrestrials whom she speculated originated from other planets or dimensions.
The term Instrumental Trans-Communication (ITC) was coined by Ernst Senkowski in the 1970s to refer
more generally to communication through any sort of electronic device such as tape recorders, fax machines,
 television sets or computers between spirits or other discarnate entities and the living.[2][16] One particularly
 famous claimed incidence of ITC occurred when the image of EVP enthusiast Friedrich Jürgenson
(whose funeral was held that day) was said to have appeared on a television in the home of a colleague,
 which had been purposefully tuned to a vacant channel.[2] ITC enthusiasts also look at TV and video camera
feedback loop of the Droste effect.[17][18]
In 1979, parapsychologist D. Scott Rogo described an alleged paranormal phenomenon in which people report
 that they receive simple, brief, and usually single-occurrence telephone calls from spirits of deceased relatives,
 friends, or strangers.[19]
In 1997, Imants Barušs, of the Department of Psychology at the University of Western Ontario, conducted a
series of experiments using the methods of EVP investigator Konstantin Raudive, and the work of “instrumental
 transcommunication researcher” Mark Macy, as a guide. A radio was tuned to an empty frequency, and over
 81 sessions a total of 60 hours and 11 minutes of recordings were collected. During recordings, a person either
sat in silence or attempted to make verbal contact with potential sources of EVP.[2] Barušs stated that he did
record several events that sounded like voices, but they were too few and too random to represent viable data
and too open to interpretation to be described definitively as EVP. He concluded: “While we did replicate EVP
 in the weak sense of finding voices on audio tapes, none of the phenomena found in our study was clearly
anomalous, let alone attributable to discarnate beings. Hence we have failed to replicate EVP in the strong
sense.” The findings were published in the Journal of Scientific Exploration in 2001, and include a literature
In 2005, the Journal of the Society for Psychical Research published a report by paranormal investigator
 Alexander MacRae. MacRae conducted recording sessions using a device of his own design that
generated EVP.[20] In an attempt to demonstrate that different individuals would interpret EVP in the
recordings the same way, MacRae asked seven people to compare some selections to a list of five phrases
he provided, and to choose the best match. MacRae said the results of the listening panels indicated that the
 selections were of paranormal origin.[7][21][22]
Portable digital voice recorders are currently the technology of choice for EVP investigators. Since these
 devices are very susceptible to Radio Frequency (RF) contamination, EVP enthusiasts sometimes try to
record EVP in RF- and sound-screened rooms.[23][24] Nevertheless, in order to record EVP there has to be
 noise in the audio circuits of the device used to produce the EVP.[25] For this reason, those who attempt to
 record EVP often use two recorders that have differing quality audio circuitry and rely on noise heard from the
poorer quality instrument to generate EVP.[26]
Some EVP enthusiasts describe hearing the words in EVP as an ability, much like learning a new
 language.[27] Skeptics say that the claimed instances are all either hoaxes or misinterpretations of
natural phenomena. EVP and ITC are seldom researched within the scientific communityand, as ideas,
are generally derided by scientists when asked.[2]

[edit]Explanations and origins

Paranormal explanations for EVP generally assume production of EVP by a communicating intelligence
through means other than the typical functioning of communication technologies. Natural explanations for
 reported instances of EVP tend to dispute this assumption explicitly and provide explanations which do
 not require novel mechanisms that are not based on recognized scientific phenomena.
At least one study, by psychologist Imants Barušs, finds that EVP cannot be replicated under controlled

[edit]Natural explanations

There are a number of simple scientific explanations that can account for why some listeners to the static
 on audio devices may believe they hear voices, including radio interference and the tendency of the human
 brain to recognize patterns in random stimuli.[29] Some recordings may be hoaxes created by frauds or pranksters.[29]

[edit]Psychology and Perception

Auditory pareidolia is a situation created when the brain incorrectly interprets random patterns as being familiar
 patterns.[30] In the case of EVP it could result in an observer interpreting random noise on an audio recording
as being the familiar sound of a human voice.[29][31][32] The propensity for an apparent voice heard in white
noise recordings to be in a language understood well by those researching it, rather than in an unfamiliar
language, has been cited as evidence of this,[29] and a broad class of phenomena referred to by author
Joe Banks as Rorschach Audio has been described as a global explanation for all manifestations
Skeptics such as David FederleinChris FrenchTerrence Hines and Michael Shermer say that EVP
 are usually recorded by raising the “noise floor” – the electrical noise created by all electrical devices
 – in order to create white noise. When this noise is filtered, it can be made to produce noises which
sound like speech. Federlein says that this is no different from using a wah pedal on a guitar, which
 is a focused sweep filter which moves around the spectrum and creates open vowel sounds. This,
according to Federlein, sounds exactly like some EVP. This, in combination with such things
 as cross modulation of radio stations or faulty ground loops can cause the impression of paranormal
 voices.[5] The human brain evolved to recognize patterns, and if a person listens to enough noise the
 brain will detect words, even when there is no intelligent source for them.[37][38] Expectation also plays
 an important part in making people believe they are hearing voices in random noise.[39]
Apophenia is related to, but distinct from pareidolia.[40] Apophenia is defined as “the spontaneous finding
of connections or meaning in things which are random, unconnected or meaningless”, and has been put forward
as a possible explanation.[41]


Interference, for example, is seen in certain EVP recordings, especially those recorded on devices which
 contain RLC circuitry. These cases represent radio signals of voices or other sounds from broadcast
sources.[42] Interference from CB Radio transmissions and wireless baby monitors, or anomalies generated
 though cross modulation from other electronic devices, are all documented phenomena.[29] It is even possible
 for circuits to resonate without any internal power source by means of radio reception.[42]
Capture errors are anomalies created by the method used to capture audio signals, such as noise generated
 through the over-amplification of a signal at the point of recording.[29][43]
Artifacts created during attempts to boost the clarity of an existing recording might explain some EVP.
 Methods include re-sampling, frequency isolation, and noise reduction or enhancement, which can cause
 recordings to take on qualities significantly different from those that were present in the original recording.[29][44]
The very first EVP recordings may have originated from the use of tape recording equipment with poorly
aligned erasure and recording heads, resulting in the incomplete erasure of previous audio recordings on the
tape. This could allow a small percentage of previous content to be superimposed or mixed into a new ‘silent’

[edit]Sporadic meteors and meteor showers

For all radio transmissions above 30 MHz (which are not reflected by the ionosphere) there is a possibility
of meteor reflection of the radio signal.[46] Meteors leave a trail of ionised particles and electrons as they
 pass through the upper atmosphere (a process called ablation) which reflect transmission radio waves which
 would usually flow into space.[47] These reflected waves are from transmitters which are below the horizon
of the received meteor reflection. In Europe this means the brief scattered wave may carry a foreign voice which
 can interfere with radio receivers. Meteor reflected radio waves last between 0.05 seconds and 1 second,
depending on the size of the meteor.[48]

[edit]Paranormal explanations

Paranormal explanations for the origin of EVP include living humans imprinting thoughts directly on an
 electronic medium through psychokinesis[49] and communication by discarnate entities such as spirits,
[50][51] nature energies, beings from other dimensions, or extraterrestrials.[52]

[edit]Organizations that show interest in EVP

There are a number of organizations dedicated to studying EVP and instrumental transcommunication,
 or which
 otherwise express interest in the subject. Individuals within these organizations may participate in investigations,
 author books or journal articles, deliver presentations, and hold conferences where they share experiences.
[53] In addition organizations exist which dispute the validity of the phenomena on scientific grounds.[44]
The Association TransCommunication (ATransC), formerly the American Association of Electronic Voice
 Phenomena (AA-EVP),[54] and the International Ghost Hunters Society conduct ongoing investigations
of EVP and ITC including collecting examples of purported EVP available over the internet.[55]
 The Rorschach Audio Project, initiated by sound artist Joe Banks,[33][34][56][57] which presents EVP
 as a product of radio interference combined with auditory pareidolia and the Interdisciplinary Laboratory
for Biopsychocybernetics Research, a non-profit organization dedicated studying anomalous psi phenomena
 related to neurophysiological conditions.[58] According to the AA-EVP, it is “the only organized group of
researchers we know of specializing in the study of ITC.”.[59]
Spiritualists, as well as others who believe in Survivalism, have an ongoing interest in EVP.[60] Many
 Spiritualists believe that communication with the dead is a scientifically proven fact, and experiment
with a variety of techniques for spirit communication which they believe provide evidence of the continuation
 of life.[61] According to the National Spiritualist Association of Churches, “An important modern day development
 in mediumship is spirit communications via an electronic device. This is most commonly known as Electronic
Voice Phenomena (EVP)”.[62] An informal survey by the
 organization’s Department Of Phenomenal Evidence cites that 1/3 of churches conduct sessions in which
participants seek to communicate with spirit entities using EVP.[63]
The James Randi Educational Foundation offers a million dollars for proof that any phenomena, including
EVP,[44] are caused paranormally.[64]

[edit]Cultural impact

The concept of EVP has had an impact on popular culture. It is popular as an entertaining pursuit,
 as in ghost hunting, and as a means of dealing with grief. It has influenced literature, radio, film, and television.
Investigation of EVP is the subject of hundreds of regional and national groups and Internet message
 boards.[65][66] Paranormal investigator John Zaffis claims, “There’s been a boom in ghost hunting ever
since the Internet took off.” Investigators, equipped with electronic gear—like EMF meters, video cameras,
 and audio recorders—scour reportedly haunted venues, trying to uncover visual and audio evidence of ghosts.
Many use portable recording devices in an attempt to capture EVP.[65]
Coast To Coast AM hosts George Noory and Art Bell have explored the topic of EVP with featured guests
such as Brendan Cook and Barbara McBeath of the Ghost Investigators Society, and paranormal investigator
and ‘demonologist’ Lou Gentile.[69][70] The Spirit of John Lennon, a pay-per-view seance broadcast in 2006,
in which TV crew members, a psychic, and an “expert in paranormal activity” claim the spirit of former Beatle
John Lennon made contact with them through what was described as “an Electronic Voice Phenomenon
Legion, a 1983 novel by William Peter Blatty, contains a subplot where Dr. Vincent Amfortas, a terminally
 ill neurologist, leaves a “to-be-opened-upon-my-death” letter for Lt. Kinderman detailing his accounts of contac
t with the dead, including the doctor’s recently deceased wife, Ann, through EVP recordings. Amfortas’ character
and the EVP subplot do not appear in the film version of the novel, Exorcist III. In Nyctivoe a 2001 vampire-inspired
 play by Dimitris Lyacos the male character as well as his deceased companion are speaking from a recording
 device amidst a static/white noise background. In Pattern Recognition, a 2003 novel by William Gibson, the main
character’s mother tries to convince her that her father is communicating with her from recordings after his
 death/disappearance in the September 11, 2001 attacks.